About a dozen years ago, I started collecting “Meteorwrongs” or “Pseudometeorites” for a few reasons. First and most importantly, they fascinated me. How could some Pseudometeorites look so much like meteorites? Yes, the vast majority of Meteorwrongs don’t resemble a meteorite, but there are a few that may fool even seasoned meteorite enthusiasts and scientists (without doing lab analysis). Having a great Pseudometeorite collection would complement my meteorite collection. I thought building a first class Meteorwrong collection would be easier than building a first rate meteorite collection, and a lot less expensive. Through experience, I found it was difficult to obtain quality specimens that could deceive collectors and some Meteorwrongs were priced as much as expensive premium meteorites. As a result, it has taken over a decade to build my collection. I know not everyone shares in my fascination with Pseudomenteorites. A couple of my friends asked me, “Why do you buy fake s**t?” I am not trying to change their minds or anyone else’s with this article. I just hope it is entertaining for everyone.
Researchers, meteorite dealers and anyone else willing to identify rocks to see if they are a meteorite have on countless occasions been sent a rock from the finder’s yard or anywhere else they could find a stone that caught their eye. The photo is of a 49.8 gram stone found in my backyard which is probably like the many rocks sent in for identification. It is not attracted to a magnet.
Find the imposter or imposters
In the above photo, find the meteorwrong or meteorwrongs in it. Maybe they are all meteorites or meteorwrongs? If this was too easy for you, name the meteorite(s) and meteorwrong(s). The answers are at the bottom of the article below Special Acknowledgement.
Telluric Iron – Native Iron
Native iron occurs in two forms: terrestrial (Telluric) and meteoritic. Terrestrial native iron or Telluric iron is found in a metallic form rather than as an ore, and is quiet rare because it easily oxidizes and forms other compounds. Meteoric iron is preserved by the vacuum of space prior to falling on Earth. Telluric iron was considered to be poor in trace elements, whereas meteorites contain varying amounts of nickel alloys including kamacite, tanite and awaruite. Most examples of elemental iron are usually encountered as meteorites, with actual terrestrial examples of native iron being rare.
My Telluric piece originates from Ozernaya Mount (hill in the Ural Mountains, Russia) which is part of the Dzheltul’skii massif, located near the Kureika river, Taymyrskiy Autonomous Okrug, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russsia. Kureika village (125 km from Kureika river) is just north of the Arctic Circle and where Joseph Stalin spent his final exile in a wooden hut. In 1938, the Stalin museum in Kureika was established. In 1961, the museum was closed and the hut demolished, along with Stalin’s statue during de-Stalinization. My Ozernaya Mount terrestrial native iron piece ressembles a Mesosiderite meteorite.
Putorana is a terrestrial native iron and looks very much like a Mesosiderite meteorite. Both the Putorana and Ozernaya Mount specimens come from different parts of Krasnoyarsk Krai which covers 903,400 square miles or 2,339,700 kilometers and is part of Siberia, Russia. They both come from Siberia but to say the specimens come from the same place would not be accurate. Siberia is very large accounting for about three-fourths of Russia. Siberia is about one third larger than the United States or China, one fourth larger than Canada or Europe, and over one half larger than Australia. Admittingly, the Ozernaya Mount and Putorana look very similar since both are native Telluric iron, but to say they come from the same place would be like having H5 meteorites found in different countries, but the same continent and saying, they come from the same location. The H5 meteorites may look very similar, but they do not come from the same place.
Putorana is from a high lying vast Basalt plateau mountainous area north of Eastern Siberia and 100 km north of the Arctic Circle in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia. The beautiful and remote area is rarely touched by civilization. Spring, summer, and autumn fall respectively in the months of June, July, and August with the remaining months being winter with temperatures between minus 26 degrees Fahrenheit (-32 degrees Centigrade) to minus forty degrees Fahrenheit (-40 degrees Centigrade). The area of the mountains contains some of the largest known Nickel deposits in the world. Due to the short tolerable season and remote distant location, Putorana is scarce but comes up for sale from time to time. For me, Putorana is a must have in any Meteorwrong collection since it may be the best imposter of all.
In 2009, Mendota was found next to a corn field by Joe Kerchner, amateur meteorite hunter, near Mendota, Illinois. It is reported that thirty-one pieces were recovered. It resembles a stone meteorite with Chondrules. As I move the slice around in the sunlight, it reflects a hint of metal flakes, and it is attracted to a magnet. Mendota was supposedly tested by various labs and found not to be a meteorite. Labs have tested the material and confirmed it contains nickel, but have not been able to determine the origin of the material or if it is man-made. Mendota is a very intriguing pseudometeorite. This is another pseudometeorite that should be in any good meteorwrong collection.
“Mekong Iron” is a Meteorwrong iron which is found near the Mekong River and sold from other Thailand locations as “Mekong Iron.” Mekong Iron is typically magnetite or hematite. The Mekong Iron is only found in one location on the Mekong River. It streaks red or brown when tested. Sometimes the Mekong Irons are sold as the meteorite Nantan. In April 2006, my friend, Dirk Ross Tanuki reported that tons of Mekong Iron had been sold. I suspect that none of my Meteorwrong specimens are true “Mekong Iron” from the Mekong River, but were exported from China, although they may have been transported to China from Thailand. The smooth unoxidized piece is somewhat similar in appearance to the Mekong Iron which was rounded and made smooth due to the river water shaping it over the centuries.
When the man-made Pallasite, Shirokovsky, was first introduced at the 2002 or 2003 Tucson Gem and Mineral Show it caused a sensation. Shirokovsky is also referenced in The Meteoritical Society – Meteoritical Bulletin Database, and it states, “This is NOT an official name: Pseudo meteorite.” The bulletin goes on to describe, “Specimens of an object known as the “Shirokovsky pallasite,” recently acquired by a variety of public and private collections, are probably not meteorites. The petrology and geochemistry of this object strongly suggest that it has a terrestrial origin. Below is an account of the 1956 bolide that may have produced meteorites (still undiscovered), followed by a description of the probably pseudometeorite. At 03:30 UT on 1956 Feb 1, a fireball shining brighter than the sun and leaving a smoke trail was observed by numerous eyewitnesses in an area of about 500 km across Russia. The fireball disappeared in 5-6 seconds but the trail was visible for an hour. Windows in nearby villages were broken by the shock wave. A meteorite reportedly fell on the frozen Shirokovsky reservoir . . ., situated on the Kosva River near Shirokovsky village and the cities of Ugle-Uralsk and Kizel, Produing a 42-cm diameter hold in 80 cm thick ice. Magnetic particles enriched in Ni were extracted from ice surrounding the hole. Several attempts by divers to recover the meteorite on the bottom were not successful. In early 2002, anonymous searchers found many fragments, totaling ~150kg, of iron-rich material at the site.” Oddly, in the references section of the bulletin it claims, “Never published in the Meteoritical Bulletin”
There were a few reasons why the Shirovsky specimens were suspected of not having an origin from space. The Shirovsky olivine were not equilibrated with the matrix melt. The olivine in Shirokovsky were distinctly different from those of most Pallasite meteorites because of the high nickel content in the olivine in Shirokovsky. In chemistry, the Shirikovsky olivines are similar to those from terrestrial carbonatites. Shirokovsky olivine are close to those of planetary gases which suggests that either the Shirokovsky rocks were never in space or had an extremely short cosmic exposure history. The trace elements of Shirovsky platinum/iridium ratio were much higher than cosmic rocks and similar to that of terrestrial copper-nickel ore deposits.
The 9 gram specimen obtained from Al Langheinrich comes with a pamphlet which Al received when he purchased the piece. It claims to be from the Russian Geographic Society. The pamphlet has a detailed map, various color photos, descriptions, and stories. It is a wonderful marketing tool to sell the carefully planned hoax.
When Shirokovsky first came out, it deceived many people. Why else would so many collectors, dealers and researchers pay so much for it, if they knew it was not a meteorite? For me, it is the best fake Pallasite and my favorite Meteorwrong. It should have a place in any serious collection. Today, a piece of Shirokovsky can cost more than a real Pallasite, if you are lucky enough to find it. The Spirit Rock Shop was selling a 19.5 gram specimen they had acquired in early 2003 and claimed that Shirokovsky was selling for upwards of $1,500 per specimen back then. They sold out of the specimen that was for sale on their website.
Magnetite is an iron oxide. It is one of just a few minerals that are attracted to a magnet, and it is the most magnetic of all the naturally occurring minerals on Earth. In 2014, I purchased an iron pseudometeorite which the seller said, these rocks were found in Northern California. It was lab analyzed and came back as 92.78% iron and 6.24% titanium. Conclusion is that this is a high titanium magnetite.
In the accompanying photo is a Marcasite nodule Pseudometeorite. Until the early 1800s, many people used the word Marcasite for Pyrite, also known as, “Fool’s gold.” It was not until 1845 that Marcasite was recognized as an orthorhombic iron sulfide and different from Pyrite which crystallizes in the isometric system. Marcasite has the same chemical formula as Pyrite, but crystallizes in a different crystal system, thereby making it a scientifically distinct mineral species. Marcasite can be formed as both a primary or secondary mineral. Marcasite is a mineral which is sometimes referred to as “white iron Pyrite,” however, it can be tarnished or oxidized to give it the appearance of an oxidized iron meteorite. In reflected light microscopy of specimens, Marcasite will have a noticeably whiter color than the brass yellow of Pyrite hence the nickname “white iron Pyrite.” The streak of Pyrite on unglazed porcelain or “streak plate” can be slightly greenish while Marcasite is gray. When observed under crossed polarizers, Marcasite can produce colors of green, blue and reddish brown. It forms by precipitation from acidic waters in surface or near-surface environments. Marcasite is commonly found in sediments, sedimentary rocks or hydrothermal deposits in many parts of the world. Marcasite is lighter and more brittle than pyrite. Marcasite is much more reactive than Pyrite, and will tarnish rapidly when exposed to the weather or wet conditions and even in specimen drawers. In the presence of moisture or humidity, Marcasite can produce small amounts of Sulfuric acid that can damage specimen labels, boxes, wood, metal cabinets or other containers. Marcasite is the most prevalent mineral to experience a condition known as Pyrite decay, in which a specimen will slowly disintegrate into a white powder. Little is known about this condition. It only effects certain specimens at random, while other specimens remain unaffected. However, certain localities are more prone to this condition than others. Some metaphysical believing people think that it has healing powers or aids in mediation or dreams (probably the unoxidized Pyrite looking specimens).
Pochuck is the Lenape (indigenous people of Northeastern woodlands of USA) word for “out-of-the-way place.” Gneiss is German for “sparkling or bright” and gneiss is a metamorphic rock with a banded structure, typically coarse-grained consisting of mainly feldspar, quartz and mica. This specimen was collected from Reading, Pennsylvania, Prong formation. Pochuck Mountain is part of the Reading Prong of the New England Uplands. As you can see, it is similar to some meteorites from Mars.
Not all meteorites look like a meteorite. Lovina has a facinating story, and many years ago, Darryl Pitt (Macovich Collection) assisted me in obtaining my special specimen; however, I did not purchase it directly from Darryl. Thank you for your help, Darryl! Darryl posted the following on the Meteorite List (Met List) on 14th February 2014:
For those who have followed the saga of Lovina:
Found in Bali, Indonesia, Lovina was classified as an ungrouped iron in early 2008; at the end of the same year I acquired the entire mass. Lovina’s hallmark feature are ziggurat (pyramidal) structures which measure up to two centimeters. It seems these structures formed while Lovina was in solution in the tropical shallows from which it was recovered. I had been offering specimens for sale when the Smithsonian expressed interest in acquiring the main mass in late 2009—and I first stopped selling specimens when Tim McCoy doubted Lovina’s meteoricity. Sales recommenced when new evidence from an esteemed colleague of Tim’s resulted in the determination Lovina was indeed a meteorite. Months later sales were again discontinued—through this day—when additional news from multiple sources (Wasson, Nishiizuma) rolled in which contradicted the positive findings.
Lovina bears uncanny similarities to the composition of an iron meteorite. If this wasn’t a meteorite, what was it? I had heard several theories, and I had gone to lengths to have the same verified. Some scientists felt it was slag—a notion dismissed by most. Others would only speak to me off-record, as they felt their hypothesis might be ridiculed by colleagues. One thing I’ve learned is that if there is doubt about the meteoricity of an object, it is not easy to find a meteoriticist to do more work on it.
Well, early last year I was so grateful to meet Qingzhu Yin of University California at Davis and Yangting Lin of the Key Laboratory of the Earth’s Deep Interior in Beijing. Yangting’s affiliation in particular was of great interest to me given a couple of the seemingly rogue hypotheses to which I previously alluded. A dinner in Beijing with Qingzhu and Yangting—at which Lovina dominated the conversation—resulted in Qingzhu’s profound interest in Lovina; an interest which culminated in an LPSC abstract entitled “New Insights Into the Origin of Lovina, a Mystery Metal,” which can be seen here: https://www.hou.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2014/pdf/1434.pdf
Verdict: while it was determined not to be a meteorite by Qingzhu and his co-authors, Lovina is nonetheless “an important find that is extraordinarily rare.” The section of the mass with ziggurats has been preserved intact; it is certain a museum is in its future.
All best / Darryl
Darry asked me to add the following for clarification: “I was not the one who had the meteorite classified. The mother of the finder, both of whom lived in Canada, contacted me. Upon hearing the mom’s description of their meteorite, I gently informed her whatever it was she had, it bore no semblance to a meteorite. She then informed me her meteorite had a name! While asking her why she didn’t say so in the first place, while on the phone I looked it up and was…astounded.”
In an email to me years ago, Darryl informed me that only 3 kg would be available, and the central section would be in a museum. The Meteoritical Society – Meteoritical Bulletin Database lists Lovina as “Discredited” and not “Pseudo” like the other seventy Meteorwrongs in the database. Lovina can be expensive as I saw one 41.68 gram slice specimen that was for sale called the “Dragon” because it resembled a dragon with the asking price of $12,500. I also saw a less expensive smaller piece, but it also was not cheap.
My 593 gram Essexite slab is another Meteorwrong. Perhaps together we can perform a test similar to the Rorschach ink blot test? What does the Essexite look like to you? It is an Essexite (Gabbro) that was glacially transported from Mount Monadnock, in Lemington Vermont. It was found in Lancaster, New Hampshire. The magnetism of this rock is due to the mineral Magnetite. Essexite, also known as olivine Monzogabbro, is a hard igneous rock which contains many Augite crystals which are easily seen with the naked eye. This sample came off a boulder size main mass which looks to weigh over a ton in the photo I saw. Years ago, the seller of my slab informed me that the owner of this Essexite boulder was trying to sell her massive boulder as a meteorite on ebay and asking for a fortune in exchange for the honor of owning it.
Sometimes slag can look like a variety of meteorites, since slag does not always look the same. Slag is a stony waste product separated from metals during the refining of ore, which can at times look like a meteorite. Slag can be a glass-like byproduct. Slag is usually a mixture of metal oxides and silicon dioxide, but slag can contain metal sulfides and elemental metals. Generally used for removing waste in metal smelting, Slag can also assist in temperature control of smelting and minimizing re-oxidation of the metal. The Urban dictionary defines slag as “Rubbish that is not worth the time or effort of paying attention to it, but none the less draws one in.” I think that sums it up.
Josephinite is a Meteorwrong that is a terrestrial native iron. It is an Iron-nickel alloy with an intergrown magnesium silicate and awaruite. Awaruite has been found along the Gorge River, near Awarua Bay, South Island, New Zealand. Josephinite and awaruite are not synonymous. Josephinte is a rock that contains awaruite which is a mineral. Josephinite can be found near Josephine, Mendenhall and Woodcock creeks, in Josephine County, Oregon. In 2013, Oregon recognized how special Josephinite was and designated it, and Oregonite as the official minerals of the State of Oregon. Josephinite has a high iron-nickel content (about 23 – 27 percent iron and 60 -72 percent nickel) which is rare for Earth rock but more like iron meteorites. Meteoric nickel is found in combination with iron, a reflection of the origin of those elements as major end products of supernova explosions. Awaruite occurs as a rare component of meteorites. An iron-nickel mixture is thought to compose Earth’s outer and inner cores. In 1975, John Bird and Maura Weather, scientists with the Department of Geological Sciences, Cornell University, believed that Josephinite due to its unique composition and texture may have originated deep in the core-mantle boundary of Earth and was transported via a deep-mantle “plume” although many scientists don’t share this conclusion. Some scientists believe Josephinite is formed by the magmatic separation from peridotite magmas which are later altered by hydration to form Serpentine. Josephinite is highly magnetic, streaks lead-gray and like iron meteorites. I had heard that Josephinite has a Widmanstatten pattern when etched; however, I could not find a photo of an etched Josephinite on the internet. Below is a photo of a huge half a stone of Josephinite that was etched. Because this Pseudometeorite has a Widmanstatten pattern, it should be included in any collection.
Josephinite like all Telluric iron is scarce. Large specimens of Josephinite are exceedingly rare. In 2019, my largest monster size museum quality specimens were donated to ASU’s Carleton Moore Meteorite Collection when Laurence Garvie was doing research on Josephinite. I found that most Josephinite specimens are less than four grams in weight. In 2013, Josephinite and Oregonite were designated the official twin minerals of Oregon, and within the United States are only found in Oregon. Oregonite is a nickel iron arsenide mineral, composed of 17.3 percent iron, 36.3 percent nickel and 46.4 percent arsenic. Josephinite is a nickel iron mineral, composed of 27.6 percent iron and 72.4 percent nickel. Both feature unusual Widmanstatten patterns. Both Oregonite and Josephinite were first discovered as nuggets in Josphine Creek in Josephine County, Oregon. Oregonite is non-magnetic and Josephinite is highly magnetic, properties that make them easy to distinguish from each other.
Take a look at the photo of a pseudo-Pallasite. In May 2016, I was visiting my friend Matt Morgan, and he gave me a gift of this pseudo-Pallasite. He informed me that this fake was made with real Pallasite crumbs. It looks convincing but in my hand I could tell it was too light to be a Pallasite. It is mainly made up of Acrylic or plastic which was the first thing to give it away.
In June 1965, H. H. Nininger discovered what he thought was a meteorite – Takysie Lake (British Columbia, Canada). H. H. Nininger and Glenn Huss claimed Takysie Lake was a meteorite in Meteoritics in December 1967. Nininger found specimens during a brief roadside stop while traveling to Alaska. Walking along the shoulder of the road, he noticed a peculiar stone with the surface partially covered in a grayish-brown fusion crust. The shape of the stone was irregular with blunt edges and corners characterized by most stony meteorites, but the color was too light except for some Achondrites. Close inspection and some simple tests showed that the crust was not organic growth or deposit. None of the crust material filled the pits made by the weathering or decay process, indicating that the crust had been formed prior to weathering, which is consistent with crust formed on meteorites. Nininger sanded a portion of the stone but failed to find metal or Chondrules, and noted not all meteorites have metal or Chondrules. Nininger thought the stone was worth further study, and continued his walk and found two more rocks with the same characteristics. Because he found the other two specimens within yards from each other, he started to have doubts about its meteoric origins, because he thought one does not normally expect to find two stony meteorites within a few yards of each other. He stopped hunting and resumed his drive to Alaska.
In July 1966, the Niningers, Glenn Huss and family went to Takysie Lake to search for more specimens. Due to the terrain, most of the area could not be searched. They did find more stones and sent some slices to the Ames Research Center for testing of cosmic radiation. The results from a couple of samples showed less than ten percent and less than one percent of the expected amount of gamma ray radiation for a meteorite. Odd, because common surface earth rocks would have a higher cosmic radiation count. One remote possibility was that the samples came from the center of a large parent meteorite. Another possibility was that it came from the moon, and the stones had been buried until recently. Nininger and Huss noted that the Takysie Lake specimens were scattered like a strewn field over a discrete area of glacially deposited hills.
Petrographic studies were conducted at Goddard Space Flight Center which found “ . . . the rock is an agglomeration of glassy material containing small crystallites, mixed in with fragments of crystals. The general texture strongly suggests the appearance of a basaltic tuff accumulated by the deposition of glassy fragments and crystals blown into the air from a volcanic vent. The crystals appear to be plagioclase feldspar, and some preliminary measurements on the extinction angles suggest an anorthite content in the range 40-60%, consistent with a basaltic or andesitic volcanic rock.” Nininger and Huss stated in their paper, “. . . there is no known way for nature to produce a thin fusion crust such as is borne by the Takysie Lake stones or known meteorites other than by aerial ablation.” In the August 1966 issue of “Sky and Telescope,” it states that according to information sent back by Surveyor I, “The prevailing tone of the (Lunar) soil is a grayish brown.” Considering all the facts together, Nininger and Huss suggested that Takysie Lake are secondary meteorites which have been blasted from beneath the lunar surface.
Steve Schoner had conversations with Nininger and Huss about Takysie Lake. Nininger and Huss told Steve that they thought it was a lunar meteorite. They disclosed to Steve that they found a strewn field at Takysie Lake with smaller specimens at one end of the strewn field and larger pieces at the other end of the strewn field. Steve, Nininger and Huss all agreed Takysie Lake is an interesting rock.
The Takysie Lake specimens look like volcanic breccia. The unique structure and composition of the Takysie Lake may indicate either a new variety of meteorite or a secondary meteorite of lunar origin. The Meteoritical Society Meteoriticial Bulletin Database lists Takysie Lake as a pseudometeorite. My friend, Bob Verish, wrote an excellent article on Takysie Lake in the July 2016 issue of Meteorite Times Magazine: Takysie Lake – The Classic “Pseudometeorite” – Found By Harvey H. Nininger – Still a Mystery? | Meteorite Times Magazine (meteorite-times.com) . These specimens of Takysie Lake are making a return performance in Meteorite Times and are the same specimens from Bob’s previous write-up. They are now a part of my collection. I agree with Bob that more study should be given to this old Nininger find. I am grateful to Bob for his time and assistance on Takysie Lake and parting with the specimens.
There are countless Pseudometeorites and a few resemble a meteorite. The above list is not exhaustive and does not include all Meteorwrongs that look like or have similar characteristics of a meteorite – only the ones in my collection. Meteorwrongs can be fun and fascinating and a few can be a riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma even for scientists. Pseudometeorites can complement a meteorite collection and help educate the untrained eye. My collection has brought me great pleasure, and by sharing my specimens with you, I hope they and their stories have brought you enjoyment and entertainment.
Jim Tobin and Paul Harris who have for over 19 years brought the meteorite community joy with Meteorite Times. The time consuming, tireless effort to put out a quality periodical is much appreciated. I have been an enthusiastic reader of Meteorite Times since I joined the meteorite community. I wanted to say, A BIG THANK YOU – PAUL and JIM!!!!! Congratulations on 19 years of altruistic service and looking forward to 20 years and beyond!
Answers to “Find the imposter or imposters”
Top row (left to right) (1) meteorite – Iron IAB-ung – Udei Station; (2) meteorite – Mesosiderite – NWA 12949; (3) meteorwrong – Putorano, Siberia, Russia; (4) meteorite – silicate iron – Campo Del Cielo
2nd (middle) row (left to right) (1) meteorwrong – Putorano, Siberia, Russia; (2) meteorite – Mesosiderite A 3/4 – Estherville; (3) meteorite – Iron IAB-ung – Zagora; (4) meteorwrong – Native (Telluric) iron – Ozernaya Mount, Kureika River, Taymyrskiy, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia
Bottom row (left to right) (1) meteorite – silicate iron – Campo Del Cielo; (2) meteorwrong – Putorano, Siberia, Russia; (3) meteorwrong – Putorano, Siberia, Russia; (4) meteorite – Mesosiderite A1 – Vaca Muerta
Various Wikipedia – on Putorana, Nickel, Awaruite, Marcasite, Kurekie (village), Telluric iron, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Magnetite and Pochuck mountain.
Geology.com/minerals/magnetite.shtml – (Magnetite and Lodestone)
Australian Journal of Earth Sciences: “Native iron (-platinum) ores from the Siberian Platform trap intrusions”
Geosciences – “A New Occurrence of Terrestrial Native Iron in the Earth’s Sruface: The Ilia Thermogenic Travertine Case, Northwestern Euboea, Greece”
The Meteoritical Society – Meteoritical Bulletin database.
The Laboratory of Meteoritics – “Mystery of Shirokovsky Fall” THE LABORATORY OF METEORITICS, VERNADSKY INSTITUTE, RAS (meteorites.ru)
Shirokovsky Pallasite SpiritRock Shop – SpiritRockshop.com
www.spiritrockshop.com › Meteorites_Shirokovsky
News Tribute – Saturday, July 8, 2006 – “Meteor Fan’s Hobby is Otherworldly”
MSG – Meteorites website – run by Martin Goff
WorthPoint website – Mendota
Darryl Pitt email to the Meteorite List – 14th February 2014
Emails between Darryl Pitt and Mitch Noda
Meteorite-identification.com – Dirk Ross wrote about the Mekong River Iron
International Meteorite Collectors Association Inc. – Meteorite Scams – Mekong River Iron
Email from the Public Outreach Coordinator at the New Hampshire Geological Survey to Gary Webber, seller of the Essexite specimen to Mitch Noda.
Sciencedirect.com Josephinite: “Specimens from the earth’s core?”
SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System – “The mineralogy and origin of Josephinite” – Popular Astronomy, Vol. 57, P.93
Jsjgeology.net/Josephinite (Most info from Dan Leavell & John Bird)
Emails between Bob Verish and Mitch Noda
July 1, 2016 Meteorite Times – “Takysie Lake – The Classic “Pseudometeorite” – Found By Harvey H. Nininger – Still a Mystery?”
SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) – “The Takysie Lake, B.C., Stones: Meteorites or Moon Rock?” H.H. Nininger and Glenn I. Huss – Meteoritics, Vol. 3, No. 4, December, 1967 pp. 169 – 178